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  • Use shielding if appropriate. Low energy beta emitters such as H-3, S-35, P-33, and C-14 do not need shielding.

  • Shielding is best if used close to the source. This reduces the amount of shielding needed and allows the worker to access the source easier.

  • Make sure you shield the front and sides of a source adequately to protect yourself and workers around you. Do not encase the source to the point where it is difficult to use it.
  • Use low Z materials such as plastic for beta emitters. This reduces Bremsstrahlung production.

  • Use high Z materials for gamma emitters. One half inch to one inch of lead is usually sufficient to provide one TLV (Tenth Layer Value) for most research isotopes.

  • Exact calculation is not necessary. Check it out with a survey instrument.

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