RAD and Gray

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  • Absorbed dose is much harder to measure than R (exposure).


  • The Rad or Gy is used to measure effect in materials.


  • Studies showed absorbed dose is not very useful for measuring biological effects.


  • Some types of radiation are more damaging than others (e.g., 1 Gy from Alpha particles is much more biologically damaging than 1 Gy of X-rays).


  • Above a certain threshold of biological damage, dose to living organisms are reported in units of absorbed dose.


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