Classification of Biological Effects

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    Biological effects of ionizing radiation are classified into:

  • Stochastic effects:
    • The probability of a biological effect increases with dose.
    • There may be a threshold, but the basic assumption is that the risk is proportional to the dose so, no matter how low a dose is, there is always some risk.
    • Examples of stochastic effects are cancer and leukemia.


  • Deterministic Effect (Non-Stochastic):
    • The Severity of injury increases with dose.
    • There is a threshold dose below which an effect is not seen.


    Page 128

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